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Eurocall 2008 Conference
3-6 September, 2008 | Székesfehérvár, Hungary

Final Programme

The program of the conference is available now. Please click on the date to view daily program. By clicking the abstract title you can view the abstracts also.



08:00-18:00Registration & Exhibition & Posters
09:00-09:45 Session I    [ Building Ybl ]
A-0043 Session room 1
From in-world collaboration to real world competencies: the Kamimo experience - PART 1
Symposium Chair: Dott.ssa Luisa Panichi, J Molka-Danielsen, M Deutschmann, B Carter, D Richardson (Centro Linguistico Interdipartimentale, Universitá di Pisa, Italy / Molde University College, Norway / Mid Sweden University, Sweden / B Carter, Missouri Central University, USA / D Richardson, Högskolan i Kalmar, Sweden) The Kamimo Islands project is a collaborative effort by three universities in Sweden, the USA and Norway funded by the Norwegian University Programme. Using the virtual learning environment (VLE) Second Life, the aim has been to create a virtual space, Kamimo Island, for life-long learning. The symposium traces its development from the initial design stage and presents case studies from various language courses held on Kamimo. We argue that the international collaborative setting and the authentic socialization occasions of Second Life offer new exciting possibilities in language learning. The first paper, �Designing Transient Learning Spaces in Second Life�, presents the processes and experiences in the design and development of Kamimo Island. Aspects related to visual design criteria and their relation to educational purposes and how in-world artefacts can contribute to immersive settings supportive of specific areas of study are discussed. The paper goes on to suggest how �transient learning spaces�, such as SL, can offer new opportunities for learning by enabling students and teachers to experience, perform and reflect over learning activities which are not restricted by the limitations of traditional stationary learning spaces. The second paper, �Virtual Montmartre/Harlem: Creating an Immersive Learning Experience�, illustrates how specific environments have been used for collaborative learning set-ups. Virtual Harlem and Virtual Montmartre constitute two SL recreations of their real-life counterparts as they existed during the Jazz Age/Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s. The virtual environments have been used in African American literature courses, where students develop the contents, the environments and/or write about the development. The pedagogic examples presented are based on constructivist learning, action learning and active learning, and illustrate how the nature of the environments and specific task design contribute to developing not only content knowledge in the learner but also interactive competencies. The third paper, �Teaching Proficiency in Virtual Space�, presents the experiences from a series of language proficiency courses on Kamimo Island. The paper provides an overview of the courses and gives examples of tasks students were assigned. It is argued that the possibility of bringing together students with similar study needs but who reside in different countries is one of the major advantages of this type of course; the authenticity of the communicative events has implications for language proficiency development especially. Using an ecological model of learning, the final paper, �Designing Language Learning in Virtual Space�, discusses several factors, such as the learning environment, task design, group make-up, teacher practice, and learner behaviour, that need to be considered when designing language learning in VLEs. We base our discussions on observations, questionnaire results, interviews, and other empirical data collected from several courses taught on Kamimo Island. Results suggest that the nature of the learning environment is an important factor contributing to motivation and engagement. Finally, we argue that an efficient use of the environment is one where teachers act as facilitators of learning processes in a complex system in which the students are the primary agents. Ecology of learning, collaborative language learning, learner agency, pedagogic design, virtual learning environments.
A-0050 Session room 1
Designing Transient Learning Spaces in Second Life
Judith Molka-Danielsen (This paper, authored by me alone, will come under a Symposia topic that is to be suggested by Luisa Panichi.) (Molde University College) Virtual worlds found initially popular for gaming, also support of rich and social interactions and are therefore simultaneously suitable for learning. (Nardi, 2007) In particular, Second Life is a massive multi-user online virtual environment developed by Linden Labs, and through its open access it offers participants spontaneous opportunities to meet and learn. While a global concept of the �virtual classroom� or �virtual campus� is still loosely defined it is intended that a learning environment be constructed in software for the purpose of offering services to either distributed students or teachers or to bring multiple content together for use. (Dillenbourg, 2000) These learning spaces are also referred to as virtual learning environments (VLE). Some have tried to define the visual design criteria for such spaces. (Prasolova-Fřrland and Sourina, 2006) We concede that visual design must be integrated with proposed use. The work of the NMC (Horizon Report, 2007) focuses on use or potential use as criteria for design. They define virtual worlds as spaces that can diverge from the real world significantly, but that they �present the chance to collaborate, explore, role-play, and experience other situation in a safe but compelling way.� (Horizon, 2007, p.18) In addition, since these virtual spaces are from initiation of generalized context, they have potential to support any area of study through the use of in-world artifacts of realistic and detailed design that can contribute to immersive settings supportive of the area of study. Through the Kamimo Project under the grant name �Virtual Campus for Life Long Learning� sponsored by Norgesuniversitet (NUV, 2007), our researchers have gained experience in the design and building of a virtual island in Second Life for the purpose of education. We will present our process and experiences in the design and development of the Kamimo Education Island. We will discuss a variety of teaching techniques that have been used on the island and the type of tools or context that are supportive of various study areas. We suggest that while SL can be used to replicate the classroom lecture, that it gives further opportunities for interactive teaching and active teaching. In brief the learning activity is not based on students and teachers in one stagnant stationary learning space. Rather students and teacher can experience and perform learning activities in dispersed virtual spaces. They can reflect and resolve further through agreed meetings, again virtually, at necessary check points in the learning activity. We call these transient learning spaces. Dillenbourg, P. (2000). �Virtual Learning Environments�, EUN Cconference: Workshop on VLE. Horizon, (2007). The Horizon Report, The New Media Consortium and EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. ISBN. 0-9765087-4-5. Linden Labs (2007) �Second Life Key Metrics� http://s3.amazonaws.com/static-secondlife- com/_files/xls/SL_Virtual_Economy_Metrics_02-02-07.xls Norgesuniversitetet, NUV (2007). http://norgesuniversitetet.no Nardi, B., Ly, S., and Harris, J. (2007). �Learning Conversations in WoW�, HICSS 2007. Prasolova-Fřrland, A.S. and Sourina, O. (2006). �Cyber campuses: design issues and future directions� The Visual Computer, Springer, Vol. 22, No. 12, pp. 1015-1028.
A-0081 Session room 2
Corpora and e-learning
Michael Barlow (University of Auckland) There is a general interest in the use of corpora as a source of evidence of language usage in different genres and as a source of language learning materials. At the same time there are a number of impediments to the exploitation of corpora due to the difficulty in obtaining suitable tools and resources appropriate for particular teaching situations (English for Tourism, etc.). This paper assess the current situation and describes the development of a website for teachers that provides certain tools and resources. The central engine of the site is a series of exercise authoring tools. The exercises, which include fill-the-gap, multiple-choice, matching, reorder, and categorise, are designed in a way that promotes the learning of collocations and phrasal patterns. For example, the matching exercise allows up to five columns of items rather than the usual two. Another feature of the site is the sharing of corpus resources and corpus-informed materials such as wordlists, handouts, ppts, etc. In addition, teachers have access to a corpus of spoken professional English via a simple concordancer and a utility for the lexical analysis of teaching texts. The site is open to all and users can register as students, teachers or schools. Thus students can take any of the exercises on the site; teachers can share resources and generate exercises; and schools can work with class lists, etc. The main site is in English, but versions for other languages are under development. The presentation will include an assessment of the successes and failures of the website and a discussion of exercise-based websites compared with course-based sites. corpus, e-learning, exercise generation, concordancer, text analysis
A-0112 Seesion room 3
WebQuest-based English Instruction
Min Jung Jee (University of Texas at Austin) As English education has stepped into a new era, technology becomes an import part of language instruction and many researchers anticipate that technology will be a necessary condition for Second and Foreign language instruction. Because of its incomparable advantages such as limitless accessibility, web-based materials or activities especially benefit teachers and learners across the world. Moreover, as students spend more time on computers, technology-related literacy becomes a new ‘construct’ for their language use. Teachers also get various teaching resources from the web. In addition, as constructivism and sociocultural theory emphasis collaborative learning, web-based learning environment might be a powerful tool for ESL and EFL students to build a English learning community, which stimulates scaffolding each other to promote their English proficiency. In fact, collaborative English learning activities enable students to enhance their critical thinking, and consequently they will come to truly learn what they have to know as well as developing English proficiency. Moreover, inquiry-based learning activities elicit students’ motivation which is the drive force for the continuous learning. In ESL and EFL, inquiry-based collaborative learning activities with technology have great potential to promote students’ English abilities as well as higher cognitive skills. WebQuest can be one of the activities. According to Dodge (1997), a WebQuest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the internet, optionally supplemented with videoconferencing. With growing number of students using internet as an important part of their lives, WebQuest-based English instruction would be one of the valid and effective alternatives in ESL and EFL instruction. Moreover, it has a potential to be used in distance learning or online learning activity which students all around the world can work with. This course is designed for college-level young adult ESL and EFL students to promote their knowledge on various topics as well as English proficiency. Their level of English is high-intermediate to advanced. The course is a 7-week intensive course with 7 different WebQuest activities. One of the WebQuest’s objectives are 1) to build knowledge on a culture-related topic, 2) to enhance English reading, writing, speaking, and listening, 3) to build learning community, 4) to develop Wiki entry; collaborative writing on the web, and 5) to promote technology literacy. Students will participate a creative controversy discussion, which they will learn how to come to an agreement in a constructive way. They will also do collaborative research to solve problems and they will create a Wiki entry as the final project. Second Life will be used as a tool for virtual discussion. Throughout the process, the students will have various opportunities to enhance their English proficiency as well as technology-related literacy. In addition, they will experience self and peer evaluation as a tool of assessment. Moreover, there will be a discussion on the effectiveness of the WebQuest in specific, and the potential benefits and limitation of technology incorporated language instruction in general. WebQuest, CALL, course design, collaborative learning, ESL, EFL
A-0035 Seesion room 5
Self-awareness effect on learner-centered communication in videoconferencing
Masanori Yamada, Kanji Akahori (The University of Tokyo - Tokyo Institute of Technology) As information and communication technology advances, interest has grown in using computer networks for second language learning. Lately, communication technology such as computer-mediated communication (CMC) is often used not only in the home, but also in educational settings such as in classrooms. CMC allows second language teachers to offer Internet-based collaborative learning. It has been suggested that, in particular, SCMC is effective in instruction of communication skills in the second language acquisition (SLA), because SCMC such as in the form of text chatting can offer an environment similar to face-to-face communication; learners in SCMC exhibit behavior similar to that in face-to-face communication, such as the use of communication devices. Recent advances in technology have created a new type of SCMC which allows interlocutors to feel others� presence to a much greater degree than in text-based communication. Several studies have suggested the effects of such kinds of CMC in language learning. Videoconferencing allows learners to eliminate physical barriers and motivates them to speak in the second language. Videoconferencing enables learners to use communication devices such as eye-gazing and gestures for understanding each other. However, previous research pointed out that it was suggested that practical use of IT-enhanced CMC in SLA has not yet been considered. This paper examines potential designs of videoconferencing systems for communicative language learning in learner-centered communication from the viewpoint of self-awareness, which referred to Carver�s control model (1972). From the viewpoint of social psychology, this display of a symbol of the self has effect on raising self-awareness and then allowing the person to fill in the gap between the present situation and the ideal situation. In this study, we focused on the effect of the presence of images on learning. When we see our own image in a mirror, or are seen by another person, we are conscious of ourselves. This perception seems to affect behavior through self-evaluation. Synchronous CMC is often applied to focus-on-meaning learning. However, from the viewpoint of reflective features such as application of self-awareness, a focus-on-form design can be applied to synchronous CMC, and an effective design of synchronous CMC can be suggested, from a social psychology perspective. In order to investigate the effect of self-image, we compared four types of videoconferencing systems: videoconferencing with both the learner's own and the partner�s image, one with only the partner�s image, one with only the learner's image, and one without images (audioconferencing), each supporting of the use of formulaic expressions concerning communication strategies as the learning objective from the viewpoint of self-awareness. We investigated the effect of each type of videoconferencing on two features of language learning: the perceived effectiveness of the images and assistance expression display during communication, and learning performance. The results showed that the presence of both self and partner images have a main effect on learning consciousness as well as on some aspects of learning performance. In addition, path analysis reveals that both self and partner images have a significant direct and indirect effect on learning performance, raising perceived consciousness.
A-0187 Seesion room 6
Online language learning for university purposes: A survey over materials from a didactical point of view
Almut Schön (Technical University Berlin) While more and more students are going to study or work abroad and need to learn languages more efficiently than ever before, the number of academic language courses has actually decreased rather than increased in recent years. This development has resulted in a growing need for personalised learning resources. Many different online courses, both commercial and non-commercial, have been published recently. Special e-learning campus programmes have also been developed, and these may well constitute a more effective way of learning, irrespective of where the student is based. At the Technical University Berlin in particular the number of foreign students learning German as a foreign language has increased dramatically during the past decade. In addition, more and more students arrive here with only a basic knowledge of German and need to learn German very fast and in depth. Under these circumstances, the Multimedia Centre began to test learning software provided by different companies (i.e. digital publishing, Auralog, the University Munich and others) in order to find and to evaluate new ways of supporting students in their language acquisition process. How do these courses meet the special needs of an academic learner? What are the underlying didactical theories? Which learner types and which learning strategies are encouraged? Can this kind of software be usefully implemented in university language centres? And how should one implement this software in a Multimedia Centre at the University and make the most of it? The following paper will hopefully help answer some of these questions. Keywords: Language learning software, online learning, university, didactic models, autonomous learning
A-0133 Seesion room 7
Language learners as actors, narrators and film editors
PhD student Sylvi Vigmo, Prof B Lindstrom, PhD H Rystedt (Department of Education, Gothenburg University) Media which enhance the merging of images, talk and text challenge institutional contexts in many ways. Of recurring interest for learning is the diverse concept of literacy. Several claims about literacy as a generic skill have been made on the conceptual level, and researchers� contributions can be exemplified by multiliteracies (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000, Unsworth, 2001), silicon literacies (Snyder, 2002), and visual literacy (Jewitt, 2006). A basic assumption among these literacies is a necessity to expand our understanding. Central to this presentation is to connect literacy with activities such as talking and acting (Säljö, 2006) with the visual. With this as a background, it becomes relevant to investigate subject characteristics for foreign language learning, and how conditions for learning a language are influenced by learner interaction with tools which enhance a combination of text, image and talk. Findings from ongoing dissertational work are presented and discussed in this paper. The research focus is on digital video as a tool in foreign language learning in case studies in Swedish schools at secondary and upper secondary level. Tools which have the potential of intertwining moving images with spoken language in learner linguistic productions are central to this presentation. Of specific interest are the collaborative processes which involve negotiations in relation to what the medium can afford for learners� linguistic aims during the process of creating and telling stories, which group decisions were taken, and what became the final linguistic product. The data analyses of the case studies are based mainly on video recordings of learner group interaction and the decisions taken with regard to their own recordings, and the audio- and image editing software being used. The case studies included EFL, French, and Italian, ranging from beginner to intermediate levels and from young learners to adolescents. With the aim of reducing the focus on the tools, the learners were introduced to using a camcorder, some simple approaches to shooting, and were then given full technical support during the editing phase. In addition, the learners were told that assessment or grading from the teacher was not part of the project. After an introduction, the next step was to create a storyboard, in accordance with the aims of the teacher created task. The storyboards consisted of short descriptive notes and drawings to inform about actor positions before shooting, and accompanied the dialogue or voice. The results indicated that learners use the group as a linguistic resource. Collaborative sequences which require all group members to be active contributors as well as division of roles and efforts were found in the data. What other resources were made relevant during the process of producing a language video, were dependent on the language stage, the task design, and which of the tool affordances the learners negotiated to adopt. Keyword: video production, collaboration, literacy, dialogue, interaction analysis
09:45-10:30 Session J    [ Building Ybl ]
A-0190 Session room 1
From in-world collaboration to real world competencies: the Kamimo experience - PART 2
Symposium Chair: Dott.ssa Luisa Panichi, J Molka-Danielsen, M Deutschmann, B Carter, D Richardson (Centro Linguistico Interdipartimentale, Universitá di Pisa, Italy / Molde University College, Norway / Mid Sweden University, Sweden / B Carter, Missouri Central University, USA / D Richardson, Högskolan i Kalmar, Sweden) The Kamimo Islands project is a collaborative effort by three universities in Sweden, the USA and Norway funded by the Norwegian University Programme. Using the virtual learning environment (VLE) Second Life, the aim has been to create a virtual space, Kamimo Island, for life-long learning. The symposium traces its development from the initial design stage and presents case studies from various language courses held on Kamimo. We argue that the international collaborative setting and the authentic socialization occasions of Second Life offer new exciting possibilities in language learning. The first paper, �Designing Transient Learning Spaces in Second Life�, presents the processes and experiences in the design and development of Kamimo Island. Aspects related to visual design criteria and their relation to educational purposes and how in-world artefacts can contribute to immersive settings supportive of specific areas of study are discussed. The paper goes on to suggest how �transient learning spaces�, such as SL, can offer new opportunities for learning by enabling students and teachers to experience, perform and reflect over learning activities which are not restricted by the limitations of traditional stationary learning spaces. The second paper, �Virtual Montmartre/Harlem: Creating an Immersive Learning Experience�, illustrates how specific environments have been used for collaborative learning set-ups. Virtual Harlem and Virtual Montmartre constitute two SL recreations of their real-life counterparts as they existed during the Jazz Age/Harlem Renaissance in the 1920s. The virtual environments have been used in African American literature courses, where students develop the contents, the environments and/or write about the development. The pedagogic examples presented are based on constructivist learning, action learning and active learning, and illustrate how the nature of the environments and specific task design contribute to developing not only content knowledge in the learner but also interactive competencies. The third paper, �Teaching Proficiency in Virtual Space�, presents the experiences from a series of language proficiency courses on Kamimo Island. The paper provides an overview of the courses and gives examples of tasks students were assigned. It is argued that the possibility of bringing together students with similar study needs but who reside in different countries is one of the major advantages of this type of course; the authenticity of the communicative events has implications for language proficiency development especially. Using an ecological model of learning, the final paper, �Designing Language Learning in Virtual Space�, discusses several factors, such as the learning environment, task design, group make-up, teacher practice, and learner behaviour, that need to be considered when designing language learning in VLEs. We base our discussions on observations, questionnaire results, interviews, and other empirical data collected from several courses taught on Kamimo Island. Results suggest that the nature of the learning environment is an important factor contributing to motivation and engagement. Finally, we argue that an efficient use of the environment is one where teachers act as facilitators of learning processes in a complex system in which the students are the primary agents. Ecology of learning, collaborative language learning, learner agency, pedagogic design, virtual learning environments.
A-0037 Session room 2
The Sacodeyl Project - Using an Enriched Corpus Search Tool for Language Learning Purposes
Johannes Widmann, MA, Prof. Dr. K. Kohn (Tübingen University) The SACODEYL project has created pedagogically motivated spoken language corpora. Using a structured interview approach, speech samples of teenagers in 7 European languages have been video recorded: English, French, German, Italian, Lithuanian, Romanian, and Spanish. The video transcripts have been pedagogically annotated and enriched for language learning and teaching purposes. In our presentation we will first take a look at our pedagogic annotation and enrichment approach. Our annotation scheme takes various annotation categories into account that are relevant for language learning, e.g. assigning a topic to a paragraph, CEF level, lexical, grammatical, stylistic, and pragmatic properties. In addition, the SACODEYL annotation tool enables teachers to define their own annotation categories, which allows them to annotate their own corpus transcripts with regard to the characteristics they deem pedagogically most relevant. Furthermore, links to additional enrichment resources, such as sound/video files, cultural background information and focused language learning packages can be integrated. Then the annotation tool turns the annotated transcriptions into TEI-conformant XML files. The teachers themselves don�t have to work on the XML level, they are provided with a visual interface that shows their annotations graphically. Our online corpus search interface supports a flexible combination of these pedagogically relevant search parameters. It helps to approach the corpus from three different angles. First, it provides a traditional word-based concordance search. Multiple words can also be searched. Secondly, the user can search for co-occurences of several words within a user-defined span. Lastly, the user can start from a topic-based section search. This third type of search helps to zoom in quickly on text snippets that are relevant to certain teaching topics. All of these searches can be combined with all annotation categories. These categories can also serve as filters to prevent certain sections from being included in the search results. Complementing the three basic search angles, the user can also search the interview corpora in a �browse mode�. This is a helpful start for those who are new to corpus-based language learning, as it is more in line with the traditional way of �text reading�. The search interface also returns links to available enrichment resources, if these have been indicated in the annotation process. In conclusion, we will show some results of the first pilot studies that have been done to evaluate the usability of this new type of corpus exploitation tool. We will report on the perceptions and the feedback of students in several European countries.
A-0129 Session room 3
Reluctance, resistance and radicalism revisited: a study of staff reaction to the adoption of CALL and ICT in a modern language department
John H Gillespie (University of Ulster) This paper will build on work undertaken by Gillespie and McKee in 1999 on student reaction and by Gillespie and Barr in 2001 on staff reaction to the integration of technology into language teaching. In particular it will concentrate on one academic institution, the home institution of the proposer, as a case study, and compare the situation there to the one that existed in 2001. In doing so it will form part of a longitudinal study which is considering the integration of CALL into mainstream language teaching departments. The teaching environment will be described in detail as well as the staffing of languages and the range of language programmes offered. The current penetration of CALL into language teaching will be explained. Qualitative and quantitative data will be collected from interviews with staff, from observational analysis and from questionnaire responses. The study will consider the increase in staff participation in the use of CALL/ICT and seek to account, on the basis of the data collected, for the current positive situation. It will also indicate the change in the numbers of staff in each of the three categories (reluctants, resistants or radicals) and account, in particular, for continued resistance. It will seek to explain the reasons for the changes which have taken place and to draw the necessary lessons for future development. It will draw attention to the role of senior managers, the appointment of dedicated staff through a government-funded project, the availability of expert technical help, the provision of leading-edge hardware and software resources, the provision of staff training on a group and individual basis and the effect of supportive institutional policies and initiatives. In doing so we will attempt to suggest a blueprint for the integration of CALL based on this experience over a significant number of years. KEYWORDS: Integration; staff reaction; resource provision; participation; training; resistance
A-0130 Session room 4
Introducing blended learning to enhance cultural competence
Florence Le Baron, A Chambers, L Murray (University of Limerick) From the 1980s onwards research on the role of culture in language learning (Byram 1989; Zarate 1986) developed independently of CALL research. The 1990s saw the emergence of research within CALL focusing on intercultural communication (Herring 1996). In the twenty-first century, despite the emergence of a significant body of research in computer-mediated intercultural communication (O�Dowd 2007), there is still a need for research in the broader area of how teaching about culture can be integrated in the CALL environment (Levy 2007: 121). In addition to intercultural computer-mediated communication, the ever-increasing use of new media in recent years has been reshaping our ways of communicating within our own cultures. This has had a direct influence on educational methods and language learning/teaching. Computer-mediated communication (CMC) or network-based language learning (NBLT), which are more learner-centered, complement face-to-face contact. In addition to human-to-human communication, this blended learning environment enables learners to come into contact with other students to reflect on their learning, to complete collaborative work, etc (Chappelle 2003). This paper presents a PhD project involving the introduction of blended learning in a university first-year French class in which students develop their knowledge of French culture. A student-centred pedagogy will be implemented encouraging the students to reflect on the texts on French culture which they are reading and to share their experiences and encounters with French culture. In addition to their usual face-to-face class, the students are given weekly assignments in a virtual learning environment (Sakai) and use different resources to reflect on their cultural learning. A discussion forum will be used from the first week by the students and the teacher; A blog, also available from the first week will be written by individual students to reflect on their learning process in relation to French culture. The blog will be accessible to others at the owner�s discretion; A wiki will be introduced mid semester and enable the students to work collaboratively on topics such as the definition of culture, similarities and differences between their own and French culture. This paper will present the results of a pilot project carried out to inform the methodology of the full project. Based on student observation, questionnaire and semi-structured interview, the paper will examine what aspects of the integration of the virtual environment are most successful, identify the obstacles encountered by the students, and investigate how ICT can enhance the teaching and learning of culture. Byram, M. (1989) Cultural Studies in foreign language education, London: Multilingual Matters. Chappelle, C. (2003) English Language Learning and Technology: lectures on teaching and research in the age of information and communication, Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing. Herring, S (1996) Computer-mediated-communication, linguistic, social and cross-cultural perspectives, Amsterdam: John Benjamin Publishing Company. Levy, M. (2007) 'Culture, culture learning and new technologies: towards a pedagogical framework', Language Learning & Technology, 11(2) [online] Available from http://llt.msu.edu/vol11num2/levy/default.html. O�Dowd, R. (2007) Online intercultural exchange, London: Multilingual Matters. Zarate, G. (1986) Enseigner une culture étrangčre, Paris: Hachette. Key words: Language learning Information and Communications Technologies Computer-assisted language learning Culture French studies Applied linguistics
A-0078 Session room 5
automatic assessment of fricatives and affricatives in computer-assisted Mandarin learning
Bin Dong; Qingwei Zhao; Yonghong Yan (Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) In this paper, a paradigm for the automatic assessment of pronunciation quality of fricatives and affricatives by machine is presented. Fricatives and affricatives are two categories of phonemes in Mandarin Chinese which are highly confusable. These two categories of phonemes are very close in articulation. The main difference is whether spike exists in speech production. For affricatives, spike exists in speech production. Energy of spectrum in a short period is mounting sharply after a short silence. This is the main feature used in this paper. It’s very difficult not only for non-natives to learn these two categories of phonemes because they are not easy to be discriminated, but also for machines. Currently the method used in automatic assessing non-native speech is based on automatic speech recognition (ASR) techniques using Hidden Markov Models. Confidence scores at the phoneme level are calculated to provide detailed information about pronunciation quality of a non-native. In this method, whether the machine score is reasonable and accurate defends on the delicate acoustics model. Although acoustics model now is trained with the discriminating training method, fricatives and affricatives are not described subtly. The paradigm presented in this paper used the rate of change in energy as feature originated from speech production. During the processing of feature extracting, Multi-resolution Analysis is used to analyze the energy explosion of affricatives and extract discriminating features. Meanwhile, finding the energy explosion area of affricatives is crucial and forward-backward search method is used to locate the area. And then support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as classifier. In this paper, both native and non-native speech is collected and a database of human-expert ratings is created to validate the machine scores. With the paradigm presented assessing these two categories of phonemes, 91.90% scoring correct rate has been obtained while the performance of HMM is 82.3%. Keywords: Automatic pronunciation scoring; Speech technology; Pronunciation quality assessment; Language instruction system; Speech recognition; Computer assisted language learning
A-0122 Session room 6
"Content with your content?" (revisited) Why interoperability standards do not offer sufficient linguistic-didactic functionality.
Frederik Cornillie, J. Colpaert (University of Antwerp - LINGUAPOLIS, Institute for Language and Communication) "Content with your content?" is a question that appears in more than one publication or presentation, mostly dealing with reusability of content and the mutability of technology. In the field of CALL, we remember Mary Ann Lyman-Hager's presentation at Calico '97, which focused on her Toolbook templates and the integration of audio. In this paper, we propose a generic and dedicated model for interactive content for language learning. At the same time, we evaluate current attempts at standardisation of e-learning datamodels (such as SCORM, IMS QTI and LOM), while taking into account dedicated requirements for language learning of the CALL community. Since the late 90s, after the first www boom, attempts have been made to establish interoperability specifications for e-learning content such as LOM, SCORM, QTI and other IMS specifications. Ever since, the consortia which publish these specifications have struggled to enforce them and turn them into de facto standards, i.e. specifications that are not (yet) standards by law, but by wide usage (Sloep 2002). In this way, teachers, content providers and developers of learning systems need no longer worry about interoperability issues, and content may eventually become free, open and reusable. At this moment, many of these specifications have not yet evolved into fully accepted standards, witness the dialects of these specifications, or even proprietary data models that are still being produced by developers of CA(L)L tools (LMSs, authoring programs). Moreover, the stakes at standardisation have been heightened by the emergence of mobile learning, and by the pressure of the Web 2.0 content sharing and social networking principles. We are convinced that the current attempts at e-learning standardisation focus too much on the issue of interoperability, and, in doing so, ignore aspects of reusability other than interoperability (how easy is it to use your content in other programs and contexts?), and neglect specific didactic requirements (Colpaert 2004). This applies especially to the area of CALL, in which linguistic routines such as answer parsing, interaction sequences (Hubbard 2001), detailed categorisation of learning items, intricate (adaptive) selection mechanisms (for intelligent tutoring, see Heift & Schulze 2007, Dodigovic 2005), and adaptation to the most appropriate degree of learner autonomy are the keys to authentic competency development of the learner. We propose an interdisciplinary methodology, in which we identify and analyze three kinds of requirements: interoperability requirements such as web services (computer science), reusability requirements (usability and design disciplines) and linguistic-didactic requirements (linguistics and pedagogy). On the basis of this analysis, and of a previous working hypothesis (Colpaert & Cornillie 2007) we are currently working on the design of a generic model for interactive content, which is specifically geared toward fulfilling language learning requirements based on theory and practice. The result of the analysis and design phases will be a class diagram of the generic and dedicated model. The properties, methods and events of the classes will be documented in detail. Finally, suggestions will be made for further elaboration, prototyping and implementation of this model. interoperability, e-learning, datamodelling, web services, repositories, interactive content
A-0047 Session room 7
Designing and Implementing the LanguageSpace: A Social Networking Website for Language Learning and Teaching
Douglas Moody (Dartmouth College - Hanover, New Hampshire, USA) The LanguageSpace (www.languagespace.org) project is funded by a grant from the Consortium for Language Teaching and Learning (comprised of the eight Ivy League universities in the United States, the University of Chicago, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and this brand new website is designed to create a social networking �nexus of communication,� which will promote student-centered learning activities and demonstrate these innovative teaching methods to instructors of foreign languages. The LanguageSpace website utilizes the latest Web 2.0 technology to connect learners and teachers of foreign languages and cultures. The LanguageSpace project is in its developmental stages and the principal investigators at three Consortium institutions are currently testing the beta version of the website with colleagues in Spain and Mexico. During the spring and fall semesters of 2008, the investigators will continue to integrate the website into their instruction in the pilot phases of the project. This Research and Development paper presentation will demonstrate the current developments and findings of the LanguageSpace project. This paper presentation will trace the evolution and the aspirations of the LanguageSpace website and provide a critical appraisal of development of the CMC applications that are integrated into the social networking website. Rather than present formal research, this paper will emphasise the practices and methodologies that are currently under development with the website and explore the new competencies that are being tested by both students and instructors who are piloting the LanguageSpace. Keywords: telecollaboration, social networking, computer-mediated communication, Web 2.0
10:30-11:00 Coffee Break    [ Building Ybl ]
11:00-12:00 Plenary session 2    [ A auditorium ]
A-0192 Auditorium Building A
Andrea Kárpáti (Eötvös Lorán University, Faculty of Science, UNESCO Chair for ICT in Education) In order to make the most of social spaces offered by thousands of international communities in the second generation web applications termed Web 2 or Social Web, ICT competences as well as social skills are needed for both teachers and learners. The paper outlines differences in competence structures of Net Natives (who came of age in te 21th century) and the Net Generation of the 1980ies and 1990ies that evolve in response to changes between Web 1 and Web 2 technologies. Virtual educational environments in the age of the Social Web represent a perfect embodiment of the Constructionist paradigm: they offer shared discussion and work spaces instead of presentation tools, coaching utilities instead of help desks, and digital learning resource repositories instead of ready-made learning materials. LeMill, a collaborative platform for teachers, MapIt, the integrated discussion and mind map tool for learners and Shared Space, a virtual working environment for both teachers and learners will be presented to illustrate the interrelated change in educational software design and use. New teaching and learning aids require and at the same time inspire new educational theories. The trialogical learning paradigm that invites all educational stakeholders to work on shared objects of inquiry and development and thus develop epistemic agency will be offered as a foundation for a “Social CALL”.
12:00-13:30 Annual General Meeting    [ Building A auditorium ]
13:30-14:30 Lunch Break    [ Building A ]
14:30-15:15 Session K    [ Building Ybl ]
A-0067 Session room 1
Integrating a wiki in an environment for collaborative language learning
Linda Bradley (PhD student), Sylvi Vigmo (PhD student), B Lindstrom (Professor), H Rystedt (PhD) (Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg University) Learning environments which can enhance group activities become interesting from both a professional as well as a foreign language learning perspective. In this paper we present the results from a study of a language course in higher education where a wiki was used as a space for collaborative linguistic interaction. The curriculum of IT students at a technical university is driven by academia and professional requirements from industry, placing discursive competences in language and communication as vital issues together with disciplinary engineering courses. In language learning, finding ways of making use of natural meetings reflecting communication in the real world and how linguistic competences are framed (Kramsch, 2006, Kenning, 2006, Leung, 2005) is frequently emphasized. The course is built on the students� previous English learning experience together with what is expected from them looking ahead at a professional context. The course was given in a blended mode, with physical classes and virtual assignments. The online environments consisted of the university LMS adopted for the distribution of information and course material and of a web based grammar tool, EngOnline. These spaces offered no possibility for students to interact and create their own linguistic content. Since the course tasks required both individual as well as collaborative activities, a wiki was introduced. In addition to the LMS course management features, the wiki offered spaces for elaborating text, for feedback and discussions, and for practising linguistic and argumentative skills; all of these being course elements. This design based study is the second phase of an investigation of language learning activities, when students performed course assignments on a wiki as an integrated element. Offering the wiki as a working space and encouraging interaction lead to interesting input of the potential of using a wiki for processing course assignments geared at different language genres situated in a specific professional context. The first study analysed which language learning activities evolved when a group of students were encouraged to be active participants using a wiki. Activities of diverse character and focus in the students� co-writing process were identified, and ranged from just posting text on the wiki without negotiation to reviewing the contents both linguistically and structurally. In our second study, the wiki was explicitly integrated as a collaborative space into the course design and its objectives. The results of this second study suggested that the character and aim of the course tasks were related to the affordances of the wiki, and the diverse linguistic qualities that the wiki had a potential to support. Furthermore, besides an explicit design to integrate a wiki as a course element, the role of the teacher was investigated. The possibilities of a reflexive approach to learning a language in a social environment such as a wiki, implied that scaffolding in teacher and student interaction, demand further attention. Keywords: wiki, English, higher education, activity, professional competences
A-0141 Session room 2
Kibbitzers revisited: mini research projects with the BAWE corpus
Hilary Nesi (Coventry University, UK) The British Academic Written English (BAWE) corpus has been developed with UK Research Council funding as part of the project ‘An investigation of genres of assessed writing in British Higher Education’. It is a collection of about 3000 assignments of a good standard, written by students at all levels from first year undergraduate to masters degree, and in many disciplines. The corpus is a rich resource, freely available to bona fide researchers, but we do not provide open access to the holdings because of the risk that they will be used as an ‘essay bank’ for plagiarists, rather than as data for language analysis. Instead we provide an online corpus query tool, which enables anyone to see the search terms of their choice within KWIC concordance lines, and also in a slightly wider (but still limited) context. Users of this tool can search the entire BAWE holdings, or select their own subcorpus of texts belonging to specified genres, disciplines or years of study. We now aim to use this tool to help students and staff develop ‘kibbitzer’ pages of the type first devised by Tim Johns at Birmingham University. The intention is to support novice researchers who would like to gain experience in corpus linguistics, and also to produce materials which might benefit the wider academic community, and help other users learn about the BAWE corpus. Originally a Kibbitzer page was a record of the discussion which had taken place between a student and a language consultant regarding a language problem (generally from an EAP perspective). The consultant and student had investigated corpus data (generally from newspapers and academic journals) to find evidence of appropriate usage, and the page provided an opportunity to share their findings with other teachers and learners. The page often showed some KWIC concordance lines which readers could examine to try to solve the language problem for themselves. Nowadays kibbitzer pages are not necessarily a record of a one-to-one consultation session. The website for MICASE (the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English), for example, has introduced a kibbitzer section containing a series of mini-reports on linguistic phenomena observable in MICASE, with no suggestion of any response to a specific student need. This may well be because MICASE is a spoken academic corpus; students are more likely to seek a consultant’s help when writing, or in response to tutors’ feedback on their written work. The BAWE corpus is a perfect resource in this respect, because unlike MICASE and the corpora used by Tim Johns for the original Birmingham kibbitzers it contains precisely the type of writing that university students are required to produce. It is even possible to examine usage specific to a discipline and an academic genre (such as lab reports, or business case studies). This paper describes the procedures we have been following to develop kbibitzer pages for the BAWE corpus, and gives some examples of the work we have produced so far.
A-0040 Session room 3
Overcoming barriers: the successful implementation of an e-learning component in all English language classes
James W Pagel, David W Reedy (Aoyama Gakuin Unoversity, College of Science and Engineering) As more and more schools of higher learning in Japan are encouraged to introduce e-Learning programs, three fundamental barriers have been discovered, namely, funding, staffing and infrastructure. This presentation reports on a successful endeavor to implement across its English curriculum a self-study based e-Learning program in the College of Science and Engineering at a private university in Tokyo. The presentation traces the program from its conception to implementation, including the transformations it has taken on. In the third year of the project, the user rate doubled to that of the previous year. Now, in the fourth year of the project, even more success can be expected because of new measures taken. The results of the study will be available by early spring in time for the conference presentation.
A-0155 Session room 4
video conferencing and web-based conferencing tools in teaching less commonly taught languages
Elena Osinsky (University of Iowa) Since Fall 2004, ALLNet (Autonomous Language Learning Network) program has offered a foreign language service for interested learners to study less commonly taught languages, in which learners are expected to learn the language through self-study and meet with a language tutor for language practice. However, it is not an easy task to find tutors for such languages as Tibetan, Khmer, Afrikaans or Catalan in a small Midwestern university town. The paper discusses practical solutions in teaching and monitoring learners of less commonly taught languages through distance learning using i-Sight video conferencing and Elluminate Live! web-based audio-graphics conferencing tool.
A-0126 Session room 5
Auralog Tell Me More Syllabus Integration through Automation
Thomas Plagwitz (Aston University) Auralog Tell Me More (TMM) is a high-quality (both with regards to pedagogy and technological sophistication) and -quantity computer-assisted language learning solution that is hampered by its lack of adaptability to the course-based secondary and tertiary foreign language education curriculum. This paper will showcase the integration of this package into the e-learning of our institution. It will explain the issues we encountered when trying to use the software packed in our teaching and learning. TMM seems to have been designed not for a secondary or post-secondary HE environment, but a business environment where an independent learner is only loosely coupled with a tutor, while the secondary and post-secondary sector will want to use TMM as a component in a highly-integrated service to enhance the value of its course-based educational offering. The incompatibilities include lack of an account creation system that can reflect course enrolment, lack of a content search and limited support for content adaptation. The paper will also present an automation solution that extracts all teaching content from an TMM installation into (about, in our installation of English, French, German and Spanish, 52.000) pdf-files and makes this content searchable (by categories and full text) for instructors/course-conveners, and allows for creation of customized learning paths, based on simple rearrangements of these pdf-files into subsets through searching by instructors/course-conveners. These learning paths can then be assigned within existing courses to address specific grammar and vocabulary learning objectives or to individual students for remedial work, or to take advantage of the auto-grading features of the software package by semi-automatically differentiating between stronger and weaker learners and sending under-performing students onto recapitulating learning paths.
A-0076 Session room 6
New competencies in a new era? Examining the impact of a teacher training project
Melinda Dooly (Cičncies de l'Educació, Universitat Autňnoma de Barcelona) This presentation will discuss follow-up research aimed at finding out the long-term impact on participants of a Comenius project (European Commission: Project 118762-CP-1-2004-1-NL-Comenius-C2.1) for ICT teacher training. The project was designed to promote the development of teacher and student teacher competences in the area of project-based online language teaching and learning; with a special focus on telecollaboration. (Telecollaboration is understood as entailing all types of learning activities that employ the wide variety of on-line communication tools available through the Internet (O’Dowd & Ritter, 2006). The talk will outline and discuss qualitative research carried out in order to ascertain the extent of impact of the project. Internet in education is often touted for its features that allow for new opportunities for constructivist approaches in the classroom. Nevertheless, this will not simply happen on its own. Teacher education should help shift student teachers’ understanding of teaching approaches towards pedagogies that promote autonomous learning and collaborative problem-solving. Training should also highlight how these innovative approaches can be supported through ICT. Teachers need awareness and knowledge about online collaborative learning, including “the social skills of community building (…) and the skills to teach creatively and develop a personal teaching style in an online medium (Hampel & Stickler, 2005:311). An analysis of whether our project has contributed to reducing the gap between the theoretical framework of teacher competences in telecollaboration and its transferral to teaching praxis is significant for future input of other training programmes. This presentation will chronicle the first year following the closure of the telecollaborative experience of the project members, paying particular attention to the primary and secondary education teachers involved in the project. It will discuss changes in the participants’ level of knowledge about project-based online language teaching and learning and their attitude towards such projects. Moreover, the paper will consider the degree of impact of the development undergone during the project, as pertains to participants’ current involvement in similar endeavours. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with the participants in situations where face-to-face could be arranged. In addition, interviews with fellow teachers and other school staff, field notes kept by the participants and observation of on-going projects generated material for triangulation purposes and contextual understanding. In other cases, online interviews or email exchanges were used for distanced partners. The paper intends to contextualize the status of research-to-practice effectiveness, including a discussion of implied barriers to teacher development in telecollaborative pedagogical approaches, along with a proposal of possible solutions in future teacher training in this area. Works Cited: Hampel, R. & Stickler, U. (2005). “New Skills for New Classrooms: Training tutors to teach languages online.” Computer Assisted Language Learning, 18(4). 311-326. O'Dowd, R. and Ritter, M. (2006) “Understanding and Working with 'Failed Communication' in Telecollaborative Exchanges” CALICO Journal, Special Edition Spring 2006.
15:15-16:00 Session L    [ Building Ybl ]
A-0185 Session room 1
Negotiating social skills for intercultural spaces: Social networking in distance language teacher education
Debra Hoven (Athabasca University, Centre for Distance Education, Canada) Distance education programs traditionally attract both people who are forced by personal or professional circumstances to study in a distance or flexible mode and those who choose this form of learning because they prefer to work alone, sometimes with an incomplete appreciation of the commitment this entails. Language teachers, on the other hand are typically oriented towards social interaction and communication. This presentation takes a case-study approach to investigating the intercultural applications and applicability of social networking (SN) tools among different cohorts of Masters-level language teacher education students from varied cultural and ethnic backgrounds in distance and blended contexts. Findings emerging from this study may also illuminate some of the issues language learners by distance may experience. The last 30 years have brought major changes to the means available to us to communicate electronically, from text-based email and “talk”, to the present proliferation of SN tools which allow for varied combinations of text, audio, images and video in both synchronous and asynchronous modes. These tools have provided language teachers and learners in distance programs with the potential to address some of the perceived social and communication short-comings of earlier program models, such as isolation, and to build a sense of community among learners. Synchronous SN tools such as Elluminate, Skype and other near-synchronous tools such as various forms of chat have been useful in facilitating community-building. In addition, synchronous sessions are usually necessary for students to be able to acquire the skills to effectively use some of the more complex online or multimedia tools that facilitate language learning at a distance. However, some distance language student-teachers maintain resistance to the use of SN tools and a community-oriented approach. Due to the wide geographic distribution of students, scheduling of synchronous sessions, which significantly support community formation, is also difficult. A previous study of varying levels of use of SN tools from an intercultural perspective (Hoven, 2007) indicated that personality and personal learning style were major determining factors, rather than cultural/ethnic background, in determining learner preference for particular tools and the extent of their use in a blended context. This study extends the parameters to include a comparison of the preferences, participation and uses of fully on-line learners with the available SN tools including asynchronous discussion forums, blogs and a personal SN environment, Me2U, as well as synchronous modes. Some discussion will also be presented of learners’ differential level of exploration of the possibilities SN tools provide and some reasons for their preferences. This discussion will also provide background to the range of emerging new competencies that distance language teachers are needing to develop. Keywords: social networking, distance education, teacher education, synchronous and asynchronous tools, intercultural differences Biodata Debra Hoven teaches distance education, technology for language teacher education at Canada’s Open University. Her research interests include second language pedagogy for social networking environments, social networking software applications for individual and community learning, digital storytelling and appropriate technologies to accommodate intercultural differences, and applications of e-Portfolios in distance teacher education.
A-0002 Session room 2
University entrance tests through computer delivered systems for high school graduates in Spain
Jesús García Laborda, Emilia Enríquez Carrasco (Polytechnic University of Valencia) The study on university entrance examinations is one of the most neglected aspects of educational research in Spain. Entering in the right and desired college is of great importance for many students even when having a university degree in Spain may mean little to achieve the most suitable job upon graduation. This paper addresses the importance of changing the current university entrance examination in Spain to ensure the success of the current entrance examinations. The key issue here is whether online tests can predict the students' university skills and diagnose their knowledge of a second (or foreign language). The ideas presented here and the research data of previous studies are related to the studies undertaken by the CAMILLE group at the Polytechnic University of Valencia between 2004 and today. Among the perspectives presented here, one of the key issues is accommodation to electronic contexts. Although computers in secondary education have become common for many students, it is still not clear that their familiarity with less productive language skills such as listening and reading followed by mulktiple choice tasks also favours their development of productive skills especially with speaking where high anxiety in a human-computer interaction can be as difficult as it used to be between man-tape recorder in the old TOEFL. This study documents the students' needs to overcome this stressing situation. The paper also presents some other aspects that have already been accounted for in designing the SELECTOR-PAULEX first prototype to deliver the test online. The project is currently supported by the Valencian Regional Educational Office (GV/2007189) and the Ministry of Education of Spain (Hum2007-66479-CO2-01). The paper recommends that if the new delivery system is to be used in the future, accommodation among the subjects and professionals integrated in the evaluation process is necessary. An analysis of the demands, washback and functional limitations should be basic for the understanding of the new electronic context that it is still in process of trialling. Therefore, the Spanish university entrance examination aims to diagnose students properly but it seems necessary to change the current testing delivery and context. According to the researchers in the project, the best way to assure suitability for the evaluation is the Internet based test. The results obtained from previous studies predict the possibility through the design of the appropriate test construct and student training (both in language use and test skills). Good results in subsequent trials may show that models currently used for TOEFL may also be operational not only for highly motivated students (like in exam classes) but for most high school graduates. Previous research García Laborda, J. (2006b). �żQué pueden aportar las nuevas tecnologías al examen de selectividad de inglés? Un análisis de fortalezas y oportunidades�. Revista de CC Educación, 206: 151-166. García Laborda, J. (2006a) �PLEVALEX: A new platform for Oral Testing in Spanish� Eurocall Review, 9: 4-7. García Laborda, J. (2007) On the net: Introducing Standardized EFL/ESL Exams. Language Learning and Technology, 11(2): 3-9.
A-0111 Session room 3
Intercultural negotiation through video-web communication: coping with difficulties for success in two intercontinental projects
Kristi Jauregi, Emerita Bańados (Utrecht University, the Netherlands - Universidad de Concepción, Chile) Studies in telecollaborative exchanges report on the difficulties such projects face with frequent instances of failed communication, low levels of participation, indifference, tension between participants, or a negative evaluation of the partner group or their culture (O�Dowd & Ritter, 2006). We present experiences and success factors of two intercontinental projects conducted in 2006 and 2007, where Dutch students of Spanish as a foreign language interact with Chilean Spanish teachers to be making use of a video-web communication tool. We explain success factors according to three sources of data: questionnaires, interaction samples and blog postings, where participants described their project experience. Reference: O�Dowd, R. & Ritter, M. (2006): Understanding and working with �failed communication� in telecollaborative exchanges. CALICO Journal, 23 (3), 1-20.
A-0164 Session room 4
Developing multiliterate media expertise in language teacher training
Sabine Ylönen, P. Taalas, R. Alanen, A. Huhta, M. Tarnanen (University of Jyväskylä) Developments in the knowledge society also set challenges for language teacher training because modern language teaching implies both including communication with new media and integrating technology into language learning and teaching. Prerequisites for both are language teachers who are pedagogically able to use the various media and are able to integrate technology into teaching in a meaningful way. Developing this kind of multiliterate media expertise means for us, to train experts with multi-disciplinary, methodological, social, and personal (including communicative and emotional) competences in the fields of pedagogy, linguistics and technology. In this context we understand both media- and language-pedagogical skills as primary to technological skills although they play an important role as well. The aim of this study is to show how this expertise can be developed in language teacher training. We examine the development of this expertise in a project, carried out in Jyväskylä/Finland, that developed a training programme called �Technology in language learning and teaching� (KOO-KIT) for teacher trainees of different languages. This programme was designed interdisciplinary and project-oriented and was accompanied by process evaluation. How the aim of developing multiliterate media expertise was achieved is studied by comparing the personal aims the students of two terms (2004-2005 and 2005-2006) had set themselves in the beginning of the course, with their self-evaluations at the end, and by examining the results of the students� projects using a project for English language training as an example. Both the results of our comparative study and the project outcomes leave no doubts that interdisciplinary work and an orientation towards the developments of the knowledge society offer a synergetic potential which adds an increased appeal and practice-oriented pertinence to language teacher training.
A-0096 Session room 5
“Integrating the Year Abroad” an Integrative approach to Language Learning supported by WebCT ePortfolio
Cecilia Goria (University of Nottingham) Integrative Learning enables students to connect their academic experience with other life dimensions increasing their learning process as well as enriching their personal development. The Centre for Integrative Learning at the University of Nottingham has funded the project “Integrating the Year Abroad” which involves the creation and the development of a computer based portfolio template to assist the students of Modern Languages who spend the third year of their studies in one or more foreign countries. The purpose of this paper is to outline how the ePortfolio created for the project takes the role of a learning and reflective tool promoting Integrative Learning within the context of the Year Abroad program and language learning. The need for an ePortfolio template arises from the proposal of a new assessment procedure within the School of Modern Languages and Cultures at the University of Nottingham for students taking their Year Abroad. This procedure emphasises the significance of reflective learning and aims at facilitating the integration of the Year Abroad experience more explicitly into students’ personal portfolios and CVs. After briefly outlining the School’s proposal, this paper looks at a number of aspects related to the creation and usability of the ePortfolio, it places it within the context of Integrative Learning and it deals with the advantages of a computer based language learning tool in assisting students to achieve the goals set by the new form of assessment. In more detail, first, this paper addresses several issues that emerged while designing the ePortfolio template, such as the determining factors for the choice of a specific package, the structuring of the template to suit the assessment procedure, and the students’ response to the portfolio as an eLearning tool. Second, the paper concentrates on the role of the ePortfolio to enhance Integrative Learning in providing a student-controlled reflective environment for academic as well as for personal development purposes. On the one hand, the focus is on the benefits of the ePortfolio in improving the students’ awareness of the connection between their Year Abroad experience and their subject studies. Thus, the ePortfolio template includes a section for a reflective log-book of their cultural and linguistic exchange experience. On the other hand, the ePortfolio is regarded as an eLearning tool that encourages independent management of learning resource and facilitates the students’ process of completing assessments while keeping accurate records of their language learning achievements. Once again, the structure of the ePortfolio template reflects this need. In addition, this paper deals with the role of the ePortfolio beyond the academic context highlighting its function in enhancing employability, another significant aspect of the Integrative Learning approach to higher education. Finally, this paper looks at the ePortfolio as an on-line environment that facilitates the administration and the academic supervision of the students involved in the Year Abroad program. Overall, this paper presents a case study which contributes to the development of technological tools to support language learning within the context of Integrative Learning. ePortfolio, Year Abroad, WebCT, Integrative Learning, Employability
A-0101 Session room 6
Aural and Written Prompts in the Measurement of Receptive Vocabulary Knowledge: Implications for E-learning
Yukie Koyama, Y Ishikawa (Nagoya Institute of Technology) It sometimes happens that learners cannot recognize a word presented orally which they can easily understand in written form, or they cannot identify a word when they read it which they can catch when it is spoken aloud. Knowledge of a word involves many aspects of the word, such as the form, meaning, and use (Nation, 2001), and most foreign-language learners have acquired only a few aspects of word knowledge. In the study reported here, two kinds of vocabulary tests were given to Japanese learners of English in order to measure two aspects: being able to identify the meaning of the word when it is heard and when it is read. We found that the correlation coefficient between the two test items was 0.65. The learner who cannot identify the meaning of the word when it is heard also tends to fail to do so when it is read. However, close analysis of the data revealed that intermediate level students were more likely to fail to identify some particular types of words when heard than when read. It may that the difficulties are caused by phonological features unfamiliar to Japanese. Based on these findings, an e-learning system to learn both the sound and orthography was developed with the combined efforts of English teachers and e-learning developers. Using this system, we also investigate the effect of training on students. In the first step, students type a word while listening to it at least five times, and in the second they shadow a sentence which includes the word. Through the whole process students receive both forms of imput�the sound and the written word�at the same time. After one month's training focusing on both the sound and orthography, the students' ability to identify the word and its meaning will be measured again to assess the effectiveness of the training. Nation, P. (2001). Learning vocabulary in another language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Key words: sound, orthography, receptive knowledge, vocabulary, e-learning
16:00-16:45 Session M    [ Building Ybl ]
A-0093 Session room 1
Before entering class, please remember to switch your mobile phones ON
David Brett (Faculty of Foreign Languages and Literature, University of Sassari, Italy) Language instructors desiring to adopt technologically enhanced materials in class are frequently frustrated by hindrances such as the lack of equipment necessary for their delivery. A viable solution may be posed by the exploitation of the vast diffusion of mobile phones and other handheld devices amongst many class-going age groups (Chinnery, 2006). In recent years, these have made a quantum leap forward in terms of functionality and currently even modestly-priced specimens offer a series of features that can be of great use in language learning settings. Furthermore, the advent of Bluetooth technology offers an optimum solution to the often arduous and time-consuming task of distributing interactive multimedia materials. In short, most students have workstations in their pockets: devices that are crying out to be used! This presentation will commence by reporting on the potential impact of handheld device based language learning in Italy, a country with one of the highest figures of mobile phone ownership pro capita in the world. The types of materials and activities that can be delivered using handheld devices will then be illustrated, with particular attention being paid to vocabulary enhancement and listening. Pedagogical aspects will also be addressed: in agreement with Thorton and Houser (2002), mobiles are held to be "unsuitable for learning new content but effective for review and practice". The most obvious and straightforward use of such devices is exploitation of the mp3 player function present in almost all recent models. Listening material may be sent to learners for post-class work, or indeed for in-class use such as task-based activities of the information gap listening type (see Kiernan & Aizawa, 2004, for a text-based example). A more advanced and challenging utilisation is that of the creation of bite-sized listening and vocabulary exercises. The advent of the Flash Lite 2 player, that is now default on most new models, allows the creation of materials with levels of interactivity and multimedia integration up to now limited to the desktop environment. Sample materials will include features such as interactive text and image based quizzes and subtitles synchronised with sound files. Attention will then be paid to some of the constraints posed by the devices, such as the tiny screen size and limited navigation input, that have inevitable repercussions on the design process. It must also be borne in mind that at present the technical know-how to be possessed by aspiring materials writers is considerable (a workaround exists, but poses problems at the distribution stage). The presentation will conclude with a practical example of how such materials can be effortlessly distributed in classroom settings, so delegates will be invited to leave their mobile phones ON. Sample materials can be downloaded from http://davidbrett.uniss.it/mobiles/ Keywords: mobile phones, handheld devices, task-based language learning, listening
A-0025 Session room 2
Semiotic mediational mechanisms deployed in collaborative activity in CALL
Adela Gánem Gutiérrez (University of Essex) This paper reports on an investigation of the processes that support collaborative activity during dyadic/ small group interaction at the computer. The study is informed by a Sociocultural model of language learning and is based on the observation of university students of L2 Spanish carrying out problem-solving tasks. The method of analysis outlined in this paper is based on the detailed representation of inter-psychological activity developed by students carrying out three research tasks in two modes of implementation, computer and paper based. The foundational premises upon which this method has been developed lie on the Vygotskian postulate of observing and analysing the processes of collaborative activity as a methodological device to understand development. The questions posed in this paper relate to the degree and characteristics of certain semiotic tools such as use of repetition, L1, and reading aloud deployed during interaction and which have been identified as particularly important in the co-construction of knowledge (Swain and Lapkin, 2000; Roebuck, 2000, 2004; Frawley, 1992, 1997; DiCamilla and Anton, 1997). I argue that the study of these semiotic tools represents a key issue if we are to understand how learners co-construct a common ground upon which to tackle the tasks in hand (Crook, 1994) and the specific role of the computer during collaborative activity. The results of the study are presented within a discussion of some of the strengths and limitations that the applied method of analysis poses to the study of interaction in the Modern Languages classroom and to the study of the computer as a mediational tool for language learning. Keywords: mediation collaboration repetition reading aloud L1 Vygotsky References: Crook, C. (1994). Computers and the Collaborative Experience of Learning. London: Routledge. DiCamilla, F. J., and Anton, M. (1997) Repetition in the collaborative discourse of L2 learners: A Vygotskian perspective. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 53, 609-33. Frawley, W. (1992) Linguistic Semantics. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Frawley, W. (1997) Vygotsky and Cognitive Science: Language and the Unification of the Social and Computational mind. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Roebuck, R. (2000) Subjects speak out: How learners position themselves in a psycholinguistic task. In Lantolf, J. P. (ed.), Sociocultural Theory and Second Language Learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 79-95. Roebuck, R. (2004) Teaching repetition as a communicative and cognitive tool: evidence from a Spanish conversation class. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 14/1: 70-89. Swain, M. and Lapkin, S. (2000) Task-based second language learning: the uses of the first language. Language Teaching Research, 4(3), 251-274.
A-0103 Session room 3
Japanese University English Entrance Exams: A Corpus-Based Study
S Kathleen Kitao, K Kitao (Doshisha Women's College - Doshisha University) Because Japanese university entrance examinations are a major factor in higher education, and most have a section testing English language, it is useful to understand the characteristics of the English sections of entrance examinations. A number of factors influence the difficulty level and the validity of this section, but the foundation is the level of the vocabulary and the difficulty of the reading passages used in the examination. Corpus linguistics, which is the study of a text or collection of texts, has useful tools for analyzing entrance exams. These tools make it possible for researchers to objectively analyze the language used in reading passages as well as to analyze large amounts of language. With these tools, researchers can analyze corpora from a variety of points of view, for example, comparing corpora from different sources and looking at the range and frequency of vocabulary used, the types of collocations used, and the level of difficulty of reading passages. In this presentation, we will report the results of a study that made use of corpus-based tools and to analyze entrance examinations from four major private Japanese universities and a national entrance exam offered by the National Center for University Entrance Examinations over a period of sixteen years. In the study, we compare and contrast the characteristics of the four private university entrance exams and the Center exam as well as look at how the Center�s entrance exam has changed over the past 16 years.
A-0091 Session room 4
Evaluating Students� Acceptance of Web-based Content by Using a Perceptual Measure
Jun Iwata, P Murrow, J Clayton (Shimane University, Japan - Matsue National College of Technology, Japan - Waikato Institute of Technology, New Zealand) The use of connected computers as interactive tools in the creation and presentation of media-rich content for teaching and learning is increasing rapidly. In the not too distant future, educational activity will no longer be restricted to print based materials, time or space. A readily accessible web-based learning environment will be expected. While it is technically possible to make media rich material available, this is an expensive activity. Institutions as well as teachers will want to be assured that the materials are of the highest standards and fit for their purpose. This paper outlines the process and procedures used in the development of an instrument to investigate students� perceptions of digital materials presented in an English language course at a college in Japan. It also describes how a perceptual measure can be used to evaluate whether the content presented meets the learners� needs. After an extensive review of the literature an instrument was created to investigate student�s perceptions of their experiences in an online learning environment. The instrument was based on four (4) scales, �computer competence�, �active learning�, �reflection� and �information design and appeal�. Each scale consisted of 6 question items. Each of the scales and items had been used in previous learning environment research and could be considered to be reliable. A web-based form of the instrument was created, in both English and Japanese, using the question and quiz functionality of the open source learning management system �Moodle�. The form was made accessible to English language students at the college. The sample for the initial study comprised 90 college students. The initial, tentative findings of the study indicated firstly, that provision of technical support is crucial in ensuring ongoing learner engagement. Secondly, digital materials created for students with a high degree of interactivity and feedback are most valued. Thirdly, digital materials created for learners should be graphic rich and visually appealing. Finally, the enhancement of traditional courses by providing access to digital materials is appreciated by students. This study also found that student expectations of digital environments were high. They believed they would learn more in these virtual environments and they would be motivated by digital material and electronic activities. These findings appear to indicate that students want to engage with materials with a high degree of interactivity and feedback. This has implications for developers and institutions since materials created for learners need to utilize appropriate instructional design strategies and technique. The authors are conscious that there are limitations to this exploratory study in that the sample, based within one institution, and of limited size, is a sample of convenience and thus not truly representative of all current students in English language courses. However, the authors believe the further development and refinement of perceptual measures for exploring the deployment of digital materials in networked learning environments would be most valuable in enhancing and monitoring the efficiency of web-based learning. Keywords: evaluation, perceptual measure, learner support, course development
16:45-17:15 Coffe Break    [ Building Ybl ]
17:15-18:00 Session N    [ Building Ybl ]
A-0184 Session room 1
Value-based Guidelines for Evaluating Cutting-Edge CALL Programs
Gi-Zen Liu (National Cheng Kung University, Foreign Languages & Literature Department Tainan, Taiwan) From 1960s onwards, practitioners and researchers of CALL have been directly and indirectly contributing to the development of various types of language learning programs and lessons to serve novice and experienced users in the educational and corporate settings and beyond. This academic and industrial field integrates the state-of-the-art knowledge, development, and research of many different study areas, including first and second language acquisition, language teaching, computer science, learning theories, instructional technology, educational psychology, communication theories, computational linguistics, human computer interaction, interface design, and others. However, so far there been no value-based guidelines�which are developed and refined based on formative research�available for practitioners, researchers, and interested graduate students to evaluate the effectiveness of CALL programs and lessons created locally and internationally. Since investment in CALL related programs and technology has been increasing gradually worldwide as well as new technologies have been emerged, we may need useful value-based guidelines or devises to help us effectively evaluate these CALL programs and lessons.
A-0042 Session room 2
SEED - Sweden�s English Educational Database for Tertiary Education - creating a platform for sharing and collaboration.
Philip Shaw, M Deutschmann, D Minugh, J Hudson, R Hincks, Ĺ Nygren (Philip Shaw, Professor Stockholm University/ KTH - The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden - Mats Deutschmann, Mid Sweden University, Sweden - David Minugh, Stockholm University, Sweden - Jean Hudson, Lulea Technical University/Malmö University college, Sweden - Rebecca Hincks, KTH - The Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden - Ĺse Nygren- Blekinge Technical College, Sweden) The emergence of an increasingly digitalized global �learning society� has resulted in an explosive development of open source information and interactive environments, where language learners of all levels can exchange ideas and materials, and thus discover and construct knowledge for themselves. This paper describes one such resource, SEED, Sweden�s English Educational Database for tertiary education, a project funded by the NSHU, the Swedish Agency for Networks and Cooperation in Higher Education. The aim of the project has been to produce a national channel of communication that can promote the sharing of information and ideas among students, teachers and researchers in English departments in Sweden. As the project has proceeded the potential of the resource in collaborative work between departments nationally and internationally has emerged. We highlight the challenges involved in setting up a resource of this nature, and give an account how it may be used to bring about on-line collaboration between students from different universities. Methods such as peer reviewing and critical discussions with students from other academic institutions have helped to sharpen their academic writing and presentational skills, thereby raising language awareness and engagement through a process driven by the students themselves. Finally, we postulate how such resources can be used internationally, to bring students and teachers from all over the world together in mutually beneficial collaborations On-line learning communities, collaborative language learning, community building, international collaboration, English.
A-0033 Session room 3
Computer Supported Collabrative LANGUAGE Learning (CSCLL)
Min Jung Jee (University of Texas at Austin) The concept of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is based on the Computer Supported Collaborative Work (CSCW), which is defined as a computer-based network system that supports group work in a common task and provides a share interface for groups to work with. CSCL is an emerging paradigm in instructional technology and it represents a convergence of three disciplines; education, psychology, and computer science. Collaborative learning is the essence of CSCL, which has academic, social, and psychological benefits. Through collaborative learning, learners can make their knowledge public, test their ideas with others, experience multiple perspectives and move to deeper levels of understanding through collaborative writing, discourse and dialogue. With its powerful learning effectiveness, CSCL can give valuable insights to Second and Foreign Language instruction (SLI and FLI). As current SLA theories and pedagogies emphasize social interaction, collaborative learning environment, cognitive process, and content or task-based language learning, CSCL incorporated SLI and FLI will satisfy the theoretical needs. Moreover, since CSCL enables students to work with and to scaffold each other, they would lower their affective filter to learn something and they will actually learn what they have to learn by doing, which ultimately enables them to build and retain their knowledge in their long-term memory. Moreover, with growing number of students who spend more time on internet or computer, a kind of technology-related literacy becomes a new ‘construct’ of their language use. In addition, because CSCL has flexibility in designing tasks, language teachers or task designers can develop their own tasks according to their course objectives. Moreover, it will give the opportunity for teachers to be one of the learning community members, which makes them true facilitator or ‘co-learner’. In other words, CSCL in ESL and EFL will satisfy both students and teachers’ needs as well as theoretical needs. This project, called ‘Computer Supported Collaborative Language Learning (CSCLL), is designed for ESL and EFL learners as a CALL or technology integrated English course. CSCLL is divided into online and off-line (in class) activities, such as academic controversy, developing Wiki entry and WebQuest. Through various collaborative English learning activities with new technologies, the students can have opportunities to build collaborative learning community, to scaffold each other, and to solve problems constructively, which ultimately promote students’ English proficiency as well as higher cognitive skills. In addition, the students will use Second Life, Skype, and MSN messenger as communication tools, which enable them to communicate out side of the class whenever they want. Moreover, the students will use their own blogs as a tool of self introduction and of reflection on the tasks. Therefore, although it is basically designed as an in-classroom course, it can be applied to a distance language learning course across the world and to other language instructions. Moreover, this project will be a model of CALL instruction to language teachers who are interested in collaborative language learning with technology and who are eager to design their own classroom activities. -CSCL, ESL, EFL, Collaborative Learning, course design
20:00-22:00Banquet Dinner